Bibliography of Interdisciplinary Collaboration

Click the in front of each section for an annotated version (does not include all sources).

Collaboration
       Institution & Foundation Sites
       Project & Exhibition Sites
       Books and Articles
General Art, Science, & Technology
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BOOKS & ARTICLES - ANNOTATED

"Haystack and MIT Sponsor "Digital Dialogues"." (2003). Fiberarts 29(5): 12.
A report on "Digital Dialogues: Technology and the Hand," a studio-based symposium held in Deer Isle, Maine, in September 2002. Sponsored by Haystack Mountain School of Crafts and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab, this thought-provoking weekend involved artists and craftspeople meeting engineers, scientists, inventors, and philosophers and learning about each other's work and research. For example, in the fiber studio, artist Xenobia Bailey collaborated with the MIT Media Lab to crochet with electroluminescent wire.

Bijvoet, M. (1997). Art As Inquiry: Toward New Collaborations Between Art, Science, and Technology. New York, Peter Lang Publishing.
Art as Inquiry presents an alternative approach to the history of art and technology and art in the environment since the mid-sixties. Focusing on the search for a new concept of art, and a different function for the artist, this book discusses recent developments in Art in Public Places and Media Art in terms of new modes of interdisciplinary production and collaboration. In addition, Marga Bijvoet argues, the nature of inquiry of these art works requires a 'field' interpretation, which perceives art as a set of relations in context. She suggests that this 'movement' might eventually bear the seed for a new paradigm of the visual arts.

Blok, C. "The Dutch Ekt Foundation: Experiments in Art and Technology." Leonardo 8(4): 317-18.
An account of the activities of the ekt foundation (experimenten in kunst en technologie), established at the end of 1970 with the initial aim of acting as intermediary between artists in need of technical or scientific assistance and those organizations capable of providing it. it was eventually decided to concentrate on long-term projects concerning the education of artists in the relationships of art, science and technology. as the aims became more complicated the foundation's planning committee presented a 380-page report, discussing the following main topics: art, science and society today; a fundamental comparison between art and science; science as a formative process; algorithms in art; and art and technical possibilities. summaries of each topic are presented.

Buchmann, S. "Turn of the art science syndrome." Ojeblikket 7(34): 20-5.
Discusses collaboration between art and science in the late 20th century, from the performance series Nine Evenings: Theater and Engineering at the 69th Regiment Armory, New York, in 1966 to the development in the 1980s and 1990s of the `machine self' as a metaphor in the works of Andy Warhol and Sol LeWitt, following the theories of mathematician Marvin Minsky. The author examines the influence of the 1970 exhibition Software - Information Technology: its New Meanings for Art at the New York Jewish Museum on the evolution of Conceptual art, describes LeWitt's use of the ideas of Alan Turing, inventor of `intelligent machinery', in his Proposal for Wall Drawing, and assesses the implications of the growing importance of technology in art and interdisciplinary experiments for new definitions of art and aesthetics.

Carlson, L. (2003). "'Neuro': Engineering Art and Science." Artweek 34(6): 25.
A review of "Neuro," an exhibition at the Williamson Gallery at the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena, until June 29, 2003, and at the Athenaeum at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, until July 6, 2003. This exhibition features the collaborative results of artists working with scientists in an effort to examine the common ground between art and science. It offers a huge amount of material for discussion and thought and points to the future of how both artists and scientists position themselves within the cultural discussion.

Casdin-Silver, H. "My first 10 years as artist/holographer (1968-1977)." Leonardo 22: 317-26.
The author reviews the first decade of her career as a holographer, beginning by describing her background in the visual arts and theatre, and concluding with an analysis of her solar-tracked hologram series on Centerbeam, a collaborative environmental outdoor sculpture by artists of the Center for Advanced Visual Studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in which scientists also participated. She describes her collaboration on laser-transmission holography with Stephen Benton, and her work and experimentation at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, between 1974 and 1978. She considers her attitude towards holography as an artistic medium and corrects certain misinformation contained in various books and catalogues on the subject of holography.

Century, M. (1999). Pathways to Innovation and Culture, Centre for Research on Canadian Cultural Industries and Institutions / Next Century Consultants.
This report presents a multi-perspective framework from which to view the rising density of communication between the worlds of art, technology, and science. Designating the site of this hybrid activity as the studio-laboratory, the first section traces the development of such organizations historically, compares their dynamics to that of "transdisciplinary" knowledge production in science and technology, and argues that they foster incremental, radical and systemic innovation. The second section examines this framework through the prism of five discussion themes: Instruments of the imagination, Creative users, Access, Reflexivity, Public awareness. A brief conclusion identifies five issues and questions for further investigation.

Codognato, C. "Rauschenberg a New York [Rauschenberg in New York]." D'Ars 37(152): 33-5.
Considers the work of the American artist Robert Rauschenberg, on the occasion of three exhibitions of his work at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, the Guggenheim SoHo and the Ace Gallery in New York (1997-98). The author examines the development of the artist's style, from his monochrome paintings to the inclusion of everyday objects in his work, discusses his collaboration with the contemporary dancer Merce Cunningham during the 1960s, and outlines his design for stages and costumes. She considers Rauschenberg's installation works resulting from his collaboration with scientists and engineers, explores his frottage technique and his sculptures with metal objects from 1986, and concludes by commenting on the exhibition The 1/4 Mile or Furlong Piece at the Ace Gallery, which features over 200 pieces.

Cox, D. J. "Using the supercomputer to visualize higher dimensions: an artist's contribution to scientific visualization." Leonardo 21(3): 233-42.
Discusses the new opportunities for collaboration between scientists and artists offered by the interdisciplinary research environment coupled with supercomputer graphics. The author considers her own collaboration with specialists in agricultural entomology, topology and astrophysics, and notes that team efforts provide interesting examples of research dynamics between artists and scientists. She concludes that artists will make important contributions to `Renaissance teams' for research. Some of the cibachrome prints that resulted from her collaborations are illustrated.

Cox, D. (1990). "Scientific Visualization: Collaborating To Predict The Future." EDUCOM: 36-42.
It is my belief that the future is going to involve increased collaboration and teamwork; Teamwork between the human and the computer, between the artist and the scientist, between academia and industry.

Coxall, H. (2003). "Hygiene: The Art of Public Health." Journal of Visual Culture 2(1): 33-50.
The exhibition "Hygiene: The Art of Public Health," was a site-specific showcase of artists' interventions staged at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), from May 18 to July 6, 2002. The 16 artists who participated presented works that dealt with various issues related to hygiene: obsessive cleanliness, disease, disgust and taboo, bodily fluids, water, contamination, identity and eugenics. The exhibition also raised the profile of the debate about artists creating work on sites dedicated to scientific study and of the nature of art/science collaborations. This article examines the background to the show, the issues it explored, and the LSHTM as a venue for art exhibitions. An interview with Pam Skelton and Tony Fletcher, the two curators of the exhibition, completes the article.

Davies, E. (1994). "Body and soul." Museums Journal 94: 23.
The exhibition "L'Ame au Corps" (Soul in the Body) at the Grand Palais, Paris, is discussed. The show concentrated on changing perceptions of the human body and soul, and their interrelation, to examine the dialogue between the arts and sciences. It combined a rich mixture of sculpture, prints, drawings, paintings, diagrams, books, models, and machines into a design that was bold and memorable without being overwhelming.

Dorin, A. and J. McCormack (2001). "First iteration: a conference on generative systems in the electronic arts." Leonardo 34(3): 239-42.
Introduces the `First iterative conference', the first of a series of conferences initiated by the authors to allow the development of a dialogue concerning the use of process in electronic arts practices. They explain that the initial conference was set up from the perspective of artists working with technologies, for whom the principles and programming of a piece are an intrinsic part of that piece. Positioning generative systems as established - as methodologies and sources of inspiration - within fields of creativity involving science and technologies, they highlight the wide range of creative disciplines which they were able to draw on for material for the conference. These include the visual arts, computer sciences, music, animated film, programming, and museum curatorship. Some of the contributions were interdisciplinary. Papers presented at the event are reproduced in this and future editions of Leonardo, and the authors summarize the content of some of them to illustrate the scope of the event, the issues it raises concerning the use of generative systems in the electronic arts, and practical questions concerning the relationship between art and the tools used to produce it in this context.

Foerstner, A. (1998). "Spatial Effects: Ed Paschke + (art)n = The Future." Northshore.
Ed Paschke still fills canvases with a Technicolor cabaret of heroes and misfits at his longtime studio in the shadow of the Howard Street el tracks. But 2.5 miles and a space-age leap away he now has a "post-canvas" studio at a cyberspace outpost called (art)n. Housed at the Northwestern University Research Park in downtown Evanston, (art)n specializes in making 3-dimensional, virtual reality visualizations.

"This is a marriage of art and science," says Ellen Sandor, (art)n director and founder.
"Scientists coveted this right away, but it's getting more accepted in the art world."
Enter Paschke, internationally acclaimed painter and the godfather of Chicago pop art. At (art)n, Paschke trades his paintbrush for a computer stylus to create hybrid, high-tech digital sculptures called PHSColograms in collaboration with Sandor and (art)n artists Stephan Meyers and Janine Fron.

Foresta, D. B., Jonathan (1998). "The Souillac charter for art and industry: a framework for collaboration." Leonardo 31(3): 225-30.
The Souillac Charter for art and industry is presented. The charter was drafted by a small group of specialists from art and industry in Souillac, France, in July 1997 and presented during "Telecom-Interactive '97." It proposes a dialogue between artists and the telecommunications industry, involving governments and international organizations. This dialogue involves the importance of artistic creativity and new forms of expression made available by advances in telecommunications. Increased collaboration between these two realms would accelerate the development of a global network that merges video, computer, and telecommunications technologies into a new communication space.

Foresta, D. K., Georges-Albert; Barton, Jonathan (1999). "The Souillac II conference on art, industry and innovation: final report." Leonardo 32(3): 199-207.
A report on the second Souillac Conference "Art, Industry and Innovation," which was held in Souillac, France, from July 6 to 17, 1998. The forum's specific projects and project ideas included the Innovation Exchange Workshops, which bring together artists and artists' microenterprises with larger corporations in telecommunications, information technologies, and content to stimulate contractual and project-based cooperation; a high-bandwidth network for artistic experimentation; Navihedron, a nonhierarchical information architecture tool that allows intuitive navigation of network space; and "Instrument Makers," an art exhibition that demonstrates the little-known artist's role in the evolution of technological tools and the effect of this role on the innovation of technologies and society itself.

Fricke, C. "Tyyne Claudia Pollmann: Mind the Gap (short cut)." Kunstforum International 144: 170.
Discusses the collaborative project Mind the Gap by the artist and doctor Tyyne Claudia Pollman and the Berlin brain scientist Reinhard Horowski, consisting of a lecture and the work Mind the Gap (short cut), a film of 17 wax balls rolling on a white surface. The author describes the film as a basis for real, simulated and constructed versions of the sequence on video and computer which create a sense of uncertainty in a viewer presented with different perspectives, directions and optical and acoustic effects, and challenge conventional concepts of reality and representation.

Gunn, G. (2002). "Brainwork: Your head is the centre of the universe." Art and Australia 40(2): 238-9.
A review of "Head On: Art with the Brain in Mind," an exhibition at the Science Museum, London, from March 15 to July 28, 2002. The show presented scientific research on the brain's ability to perceive and examined how perception is addressed through the visual language of art. Organized around historical and contemporary ideas of cognition, it included great editions of illustrated books, sets of scientific technical data, and the work of eight contemporary artists commissioned to collaborate with scientists for this show.

Herbert, L. M., Ed. (1992). Faces: Nancy Burson. Houston, Contemporary Arts Museum.
Catalogue for an exhibition of photographs by Nancy Burson (b.1948) dating from 1982-91. Herbert traces Burson's career from her childhood in the Midwest and her training as a painter at Colorado Women's College. After her move to New York, Burson worked at Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) where she met Carl Machover, and in 1976 she began to collaborate with Tom Scheider and David Petty, engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts; together they developed a programme which allowed a computer to interact with an image of a face. After further work on the system with Richard Carling and David Kramlich, a group of portraits was published in 1982 which showed contemporary celebrities `aged' before their time. The author continues by considering Burson's use of composite faces and explains how her ageing process has been used by the F.B.I. and to find missing children. In 1988 Burson turned to more abstract and personal subjects, including birth defects and deformity. In 1990 technological advances enabled Burson's ageing programme to work faster and she created the interactive installation The Age Machine with David Kramlich. Since 1991 Burson has been photographing children with progeria and craniofacial deformities. Her work with doctors, engineers and scientists has enabled her to manipulate time, identity, and artistic creation.

Hobba, L. "The Tasmanian connection." Artlink 16(2-3): 61-2.
Investigates the growth of electronic media art in Tasmania. The author considers the influence of the art schools and the initiatives of scientist Bill Hart, who has established digital art and research facilities, and is collaborating with other practitioners on several visual arts projects. He describes two new works, Pig Vision by Raymond Rohner, an installation, performance, video and Internet work, and a collaboration between Robin Pettard and Peter Young entitled Sky and Land, an interactive Web site on the theme of `place'. He also considers the role of Contemporary Arts Services Tasmania (CAST) in opening up new opportunities for access to equipment, exhibition space and electronic networks.

Hutchinson, J. "Light matters." Circa 70: 36-8.
Discusses the work of American artist James Turrell with particular reference to the Turrell in Cork series of exhibitions. Beginning with a brief history of his work with artist Robert Irwin and scientist Edward Wortz, which aimed to enable the viewer to experience different states of consciousness, the author describes the Ganzfeld Sphere in the recent Irish exhibitions. He traces the artist's examination of visual phenomena and describes the use of light in the Wedgeworks installations. He discusses the artist's own analysis of his work with light and suggests that he focuses attention on the viewer's own perceptual systems. He asserts that work such as Skyspaces explores the relationship between light that is simultaneously inside and outside in architectural space. He suggests that Turrell's art has spiritual qualities but that these coexist with pragmatic and analytical concerns. He concludes by examining the reasons why the artist is interested in Ireland.

Kelly, S. "art.business@the lighthouse." Art Monthly Australia 119: 20-1.
Discusses a residency scheme organized by the Contemporary Art Services Tasmania at the Cape Bruny lighthouse in Australia, focusing on a project by the Australian media artists Joyce Hinterding and David Haines. The author describes a visit to the lighthouse by members of the Australian Network for Art and Technology Curator's School for New Media and the Contemporary Art Organisations, and artists, explains the background to the scheme, which resulted from a collaboration between the Arts Ministry and Parks and Wildlife, and observes the problems faced by Tasmanian artists whose oeuvre is dominated by traditional landscape scenes. He focuses on the collaborative work of Hinterding and Haines, discusses Hinterding's background in electric and technological art and how it relates to her current project recording the weather through sound, stating that she views technology as a medium rather than an end in itself, and examines Haines's background in video and sound art, noting his current sound art project which he plans to take on tour with other sound artists.

Kinder, M. (2003). "Honoring the Past and Creating the Future in Hyperspace: New Technologies and Cultural Specificity." The Contemporary Pacific 15(1): 93-115.
After tracing my academic journey from eighteenth-century English literary scholarship to new media production, I interweave three discursive strands: descriptions and demonstrations of several experimental interdisciplinary projects being produced at the Labyrinth Project, a research initiative on interactive narrative that I direct at the University of Southern California Annenberg Center for Communication; five general principles learned while making these projects; and tentative suggestions about how they might be applied to Pacific Islands studies. Despite the diversity of works presented (Mysteries and Desire: Searching the Worlds of John Rechy, an interactive memoir about gay Chicano novelist John Rechy; The Danube Exodus,a museum installation developed in collaboration with Hungarian filmmaker Péter Forgács; The Dawn at My Back: a Memoir of a Black Texas Upbringing, a DVD-ROM based on an autobiography by African-American photographer Carroll Parrott Blue; an e-learning course on Russian Modernism with an online role-playing game at its center; a computer game for teens called Runaways; and a website called Dreamwaves), all adhere to five basic principles: honoring the past, emphasizing conceptualization over technicalmastery, taking a collaborative approach to interface design, searching for culturally specific metaphors, and leveraging the transformative potential of database narratives.

Levy, E. K. "Complexity." Leonardo 27: 75-6.
The author, an artist who is part of the Complexity group, describes the aims of the group to acknowledge the links between art and other disciplines. In their art, the group members focus on the relationship between science and art as expressed in three areas: chaos and fractals, computers, and information technology.

Loewen, N. (1975). Experiments in Art and Technology: A Descriptive History of the Organization, New York University.
The author sets out to identify the circumstances leading to the foundation of the organization known as experiments in art and technology (e.a.t.), its growth and development and its role as perceived by participants. concrete impetus for the initiation of the group was provided by the project '9 evenings: theatre and engineering' presented in new york (1966) prepared by liaison between artists and engineers. reference is made to other liaisons with such groups as the merce cunningham dance company and the moderna museet, stockholm. a review of e.a.t. from 1966 to 1973 is provided, describing intentions, rationale, structure, administrative activities, facilities and response received. recurrent throughout the paper are ideas about effecting a more direct interaction between art, life and technology; collaboration as a method of work; and physical activities to change attitudes and conditions in society. the history of the organization provides a registry of names of many individuals carrying out activities in art and technology and of ideas proposed, giving a source for ideas on generating new means of support and utilization of artists through their art. the difficulties encountered in realizing many of these ideas are examined. the thesis is based on published material, material made available by the e.a.t. and interviews.

London, S. (1994). "Higgins Art Gallery, Cape Cod Community College/West Barnstable; FUSED: art, science, and industry." Art New England 15: 67.
A review of the exhibition "FUSED: Art, Science, and Industry" at the Higgins Art Gallery, Cape Cod Community College, West Barnstable, Massachusetts. Eight artists, along with students from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts who collaborated on a computer animation project, have drawn inspiration from such diverse scientific fields as holography, horticulture, computer technology, engineering, and electronics to re-create the physical world as art.

MacKeith, P. "Architecture + art: Finnish collaborations." Form Function Finland: 60-5.
Reviews the manner in which visual arts are linked with architecture in Finland. The author focuses on two specific examples of this: firstly in the collaboration between architect Kaarina Löfström and artist Martti Aiha on a science and research centre near Helsinki; secondly, in the many collaborations of artist Kain Tapper and architect Juhani Pallasmaa, particularly in their sculpture grouping for Helsinki's new Opera House.

Malarcher, P. (2001). "Ferrying across the art-sci divide." Surface Design Journal 25(2): 14-19.
An interview with Cynthia Pannucci, an artist and director of Art and Science Collaborations, Inc. (ASCI). Pannucci discusses such topics as how she moved from working as a surface designer to becoming the founder and director of ASCI, a public art project she worked on for the Staten Island Ferry terminal, the artwork she was making in the late 1980s and early 1990s, what she hoped to accomplish when founding ASCI, ASCI's range of projects, and what ASCI might offer those working in textiles.

Mandelbrojt, J. "Spontaneity displayed through technology." Leonardo 35: 380-1.
The French artist Jacques Mandelbrojt introduces his CD-ROM Paintings Perused (2001), produced in collaboration with the Laboratoire de Musique et d'Informatique de Marseille (MIM). Expanding on the articles `Has my practice of science influenced my art?' (see ABM 23 08748 for abstract) and `The pencil and the mouse' (Vol. 32, Pt. 4, 1999), he outlines the spontaneous working method behind his vertical brush paintings, which may be read along two vertical and horizontal time axes, and explains that the CD-ROM contains 400 elementary paintings arranged in seven sequences or `space-time paintings', each of which unfolds vertically to original music by the participating Laboratoire composers, thus enabling the user to experience what he calls `a flow of sensations'. He concludes by contrasting the virtual time of the paintings that constitute the vertical sequences, which uses a computer interface to recreate the brushstrokes, with the real time of the horizontal ones, which is dependent on programming.

Mitchell, S. "Fresh portals for the caravanserai: art and new media in India and Australia." Artlink 21(3): 38-9.
Discusses the research project `Sarai: the New Media Initiative' based at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies in New Delhi. The author describes the project, highlighting its mission to enable international collaboration and exchange between artists, philosophers, computer hackers, software developers, anthropologists, and filmmakers, focusing on the socio-political applications of new media. She describes the participation of the video artists Meena Nanji, Rehan Ansari, and Graham Harwood in the project, and comments on the role of the Australian Network for Art and Technology and the artists Monica Narula, Sarah Neville, and Mar Velonaki in the project, with reference to their collaborative work Oxygen, an exploration of the relationship between media, art, and technology.

Niedenthal, S. "Building a better hothouse." Afterimage 27(3): 11.
Assesses the combining of art and digital technologies, commenting on the creation of centres aiming to promote collaboration between those working in the two areas, citing as examples of initiatives by institutions aimed at furthering interdisciplinarity, the Xerox PARC's Artist-in Residence programme, known as PAIR, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory. The author questions how to develop successful collaboration, suggesting as a possible solution combined education, and examines the work of the Technical Institute of British Columbia, which has sought to do away with departmental segregation. He discusses the way in which the Interactive Institute in Malmo, Sweden, is run, examining its pedagogical approach, and assessing the way in which it juggles private and public funding, and considers the American institution C5, where the onus is on the individual researchers to attract funding, noting the image the centre aims to present.

Packer, R., Ken Jordan and William Gibson, Ed. (2002). Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.
"What we need is a computer that isn't labor-saving but that increases the work for us to do, that... turns us... not `on' but into artists," writes John Cage in his essay in Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality, edited by Randall Packer and Ken Jordan, with a foreword (and an excerpt) by William Gibson. Surveying various artistic disciplines, the editors uncover the intersections of the avant-garde and strict computer science with inclusions like Tim Berners-Lee's 1980s prospectus for the World Wide Web, titled "Information Management: A Proposal," and ignored by his colleagues until he made the software, and his fortune, independently. Contributors include Bauhaus luminary L szl¢ Moholy-Nagy, Cage prot‚g‚ and performance artist Nam June Paik, and artist Lynn Hershman.

Parker, J. W. "Exploring holography through science and art." Leonardo 25: 487-92.
The author explains how an interest in physics and art at university led to the study of holography. Following six years study and employment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she combined creating holographic works of art, researching colour techniques and teaching, she left to focus upon her own work. Recently she has begun collaborating with other artists. The author expresses surprise at the animosity between holographic artists and researchers, having worked successfully in both fields herself.

Pearce, C., Sara Diamond and Mark Beam "BRIDGES I: interdisciplinary collaboration as practice." Leonardo 36: 123-8.
Reports on the first BRIDGES Consortium annual summit held at the USC Annenberg Center for Communication at the University of Southern California (USC) in Los Angeles (31 May-1 June 2001). The authors outline the agenda behind the formation of this consortium, asserting the need for effective interdisciplinary collaboration between the arts, culture, sciences and technology, and provide a detailed account of the proceedings, with particular reference to the language workshop organized on the first day. They list some of the themes that emerged from the discussions, such as the notion of `interdisciplinarity', the status of the art-and-technology community, its research methods and aims, its need for a critical discourse and dedicated network of resources, and the sustainability of the BRIDGES consortium. A transcript of the Working Group initiatives is appended, along with details of the next summit and brief profiles of the two main organizations involved: the USC Annenberg Center for Communication and the Banff Centre New Media Institute.

Ritchie, M. "Michael Joaquin Grey: five of a kind." Art/Text 58: 52-7.
Discusses the work of the American artist Michael Joaquin Grey. The author explains that Grey studied maths, physics and genetics at the University of California at Berkeley before enrolling in the Yale Sculptural Program in New Haven, Connecticut, and that he endeavours through his art to articulate the point where art and science meet in terms of aesthetics and inquiry. He states that Grey has produced four distinct bodies of work since 1988 which explore the relationships between scientific principles and formal artistic practices: the first used metal sculptures to address the history of science; the second considered the phenomena of gravity, growth, grammar and mass in a series of constructs using everyday machines such as bicycles, while also questioning the artist's subjectivity; the third, made in collaboration with Randolph Huff, used computer technology to produce images of artificial life; and the last involves an ongoing project to produce a series of sculptures called ZOOBs using a Lego-like system of interlocking shapes to replicate the 20 potential bonds found in D.N.A. The author observes that Grey's work raises questions regarding the nature of the governing force behind the universe, now that the notions of the Universal Watchmaker and Darwinism have been superseded by advances in the science of genetics.

Sandor, E. and J. Fron (1999). "The Art and Science of Collaborative Visualization." Silicon Graphics World Sept.: 17-18.
A group of artists directed by Ellen Sandor from (art)n and Dana Plepys at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory (EVL) at the University of Illinois at Chicago are improving the way we interact and record virtual reality with a new application called IGrams. A paper on the project was published in the IEEE proceedings for IV '99 UK. IGrams (immersa 'grams) are a real 3D snapshot application designed for the virtual reality CAVE environment that evolved from (art)n's PHSCologram process

Scholder, A., Jordan Crandall and John S. Johnson, Ed. (2001). Interaction: Artistic Practice in the Network. New York, Distributed Art Publishers.
"INTERACTION" began as online forum, hosted by Eyebeam Atelier, featuring an international group of artists, scholars, critics, architects, students, technicians, and curators. Discussing the transformations wrought by the Internet--particularly the latter's implications for artistic practices--the participants in this forum illustrate how the impassioned debates taking place on the Net can help forge new kinds of communities, discourses, and intimate connections across this most transitory of landscapes. This volume presents new essays and commissioned visual projects that elaborate on the crucial ideas raised in the forum--the new kinds of cultural identifications facilitated by the Internet; the relationship between art and activism; the poetics of online communication; the relevance of the museum in a digital world; and the complex relationships between bodies, information systems, and urban realities. What emerges is an unequivocal assertion of the continuing relevance of art in this era of increasing corporate colonization of the Web, changing critical strategies, and new questions of public and private space. Contributors to "INTERACTION" include Robert Atkins, Carlos Basualdo, Critical Art Ensemble, Coco Fusco, N. Katherine Hayles, Martin Jay, Knowbotic Research, Lev Manovich, Margaret Morse, Hans-Ulrich Obrist, Saskia Sassen, Yukiko Shikata, and Gregory Ulmer

Selenitsch, A. "Art and industry." Art and Australia 26(3): 440-2.
The purpose of the exhibition Artists and Industry: an Inaugural Exposition in Melbourne (20-28 Aug. 1988), was to bring the art and business world closer together by promoting collaboration between artists and manufacturers in the creative design of everyday objects. There are many issues raised by this kind of exhibition including the relationship between art, design and industry, the question of whether artists are more creative than designers, and the use of industrial technology in design. For the exhibition 11 manufacturers worked with 18 artists and the results showed the possibilities of such collaboration.

Steinheider, B. and G. Legrady Realizing a Digital Media Installation: Problems and Synergetic effects of an Interdisciplinary Collaboration.
In order to support interdisciplinary co-operation and collaboration, we developed a model consisting of communication, coordination and knowledge sharing, which was validated in several studies with R&D-teams. According to our investigations, coordination and knowledge sharing are more problematic, whereas problems in communication are less frequent. This model was applied to an international and interdisciplinary team working in digital media, George Legrady‘s installation „Pockets full of memories“ which was shown from April until Semptember at the Centre Pompidou in Paris. The goal of this case study was to investigate whether the results of teams in R&D could be transferred to other areas. We wanted to analyze the influence of spatial dispersion of team members (Helsinki, Budapest, Stuttgart, Paris, Santa Barbara), different nationalities and the heterogenity of the disciplines (art, graphic design, engineering, cognitive sciences, computer sciences) on the development process and co-operation problems. The results show similar patterns compared to the previous studies. Coordination and knowledge sharing need to be enhanced since these processes were most problematic.

Thompson, P. H. "In Time." Untitled 9: 2-7.
Examines the possibilities of collaboration between industrial and artistic users of electronic imaging machines, and cites the example of an experimental project undertaken by a scientist, an engineer and an artist, sonia sheridan, working with a 3m color-in-color machine. several conversations on the possibilities of the new medium are reported and the author concludes that a redefinition of the copy machine as a 'generative system' is required while the art produced by such a method must tend to be of the 'theme and variation' type.

Vesna, V. (2001). "Toward a third culture: being in between." Leonardo 34(2): 121-5.
Artists working with technology are frequently informed and inspired by exciting scientific innovations, and often turn to contemporary philosophical interpretations of these events, which positions them in between the "two cultures," a position that creates the potential for a "Third Culture," as predicted by C.P. Snow himself. This emerging culture is not composed of the scientific elite as some propose, but will emerge out of triangulation of the arts, sciences and humanities. Although media artists are posed to play an important role in bridging the cultural and language gaps, this essay warns against adopting humanist interpretations of scientific work or taking for granted scientific assertions without active dialogue with both. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

Whale, G. "Art, technology and symmetrical collaborations." Journal of Visual Art Practice 1: 80-8.
Discusses the ways in which the development of new technologies requires artists to adopt a new approach to collaboration with specialists. The author describes the increasing heterogeneity in the arts, observes the increasing need for specialist knowledge in the domain of new technology, and argues that the artistic strategies of delegation, developing expertise, and traditional models of collaboration are inadequate. He suggests that technologists be understood as co-producers, bringing their own creative input to the project in a process which he terms symmetrical collaboration, focuses on the work of artists including Margaret Puckette, Kenneth Rinaldo and Max Matthews, and outlines some practical recommendations for symmetrical collaboration. He concludes by stating that novel tools, materials, and procedures can be most effectively explored through the replacement of traditional hierarchies with the proposed model.

Wilson, S. (2001). Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science, and Technology. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Offers one of the only comprehensive international surveys of artists working at the frontiers of scientific inquiry and emerging technologies. Also one of the only sources available that reviews cutting edge techno-scientific research in a way accessible to those without extensive technical backgrounds. -- A new breed of contemporary artist engages science and technology--not just to adopt the vocabulary and gizmos, but to explore and comment on the content, agendas, and possibilities. Indeed, proposes Stephen Wilson, the role of the artist is not only to interpret and to spread scientific knowledge, but to be an active partner in determining the direction of research. Years ago, C. P. Snow wrote about the "two cultures" of science and the humanities; these developments may finally help to change the outlook of those who view science and technology as separate from the general culture. In this rich compendium, Wilson offers the first comprehensive survey of international artists who incorporate concepts and research from mathematics, the physical sciences, biology, kinetics, telecommunications, and experimental digital systems such as artificial intelligence and ubiquitous computing. In addition to visual documentation and statements by the artists, Wilson examines relevant art-theoretical writings and explores emerging scientific and technological research likely to be culturally significant in the future. He also provides lists of resources including organizations, publications, conferences, museums, research centers, and Web sites.

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