Bibliography of Interdisciplinary Collaboration

Click the in front of each section for an annotated version (does not include all sources).

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Amy, M. "Robert Rauschenberg: la retrospective [Robert Rauschenberg: the retrospective]." Art et Culture 12(10): 46-7.
Examines the art of the American artist Robert Rauschenberg (b.1925) on the occasion of the travelling exhibition of his work on show at the Museum Ludwig in Cologne (27 June-11 Oct. 1998). The author discusses the wide range of Rauschenberg's creativity, from the monochrome paintings of the 1950s, inspired by Malevich and Rodchenko, through the mixed-media paintings comprising painting, collage and objets trouves, to his work with the engineer Billy Kluwer on EAT (Experiments in Art and Technology), incorporating sound and music into abstract sculptures. He notes that the exhibition is the first Rauschenberg retrospective to be held in Europe and comments on the range and number of works selected.

Archer, M., Simon Morrissey, Harry Stocks (2001). Richard Wilson. London, Merrell Publishers.
Traces the career of the British installation artist Richard Wilson, observing his use of large-scale and unusual components in his art. The authors describe his 20:50 comprising sump oil on permanent display at the Saatchi Collection in London, discuss Slice of Reality, a cross-section of a dredger sited on the Thames in Greenwich, London, and consider Set North for Japan, which is a full-scale copy of the artist's house located in Japan. They present drawings and scale models by Wilson, examine his collaborative projects involving architects and engineers, and study 50 works of art created over 20 years.

Ayers, R. "S(t)imulations: Stelarc."
In interview, the Cypriot performance artist Stelarc (b.1946), who is based in Australia, discusses his current projects exploring technological interaction at intimate levels between people. He counters objections to the research, and describes his previous experience of robotic extensions and progress on the Movatar motion prosthesis for the Intelligent Avatar project. He comments on the requirement of an audience for his work on multiple interfaces for the human body, outlines the main centres of his practice and sources of funding, with particular reference to the Exoskeleton machine (1999; illus.), explains the background and dynamics of the Extended Arm (2000; illus.), and concludes by revealing the locomotion pattern of the Radical Robot design, created in collaboration with the British researchers Barry Smith and Inman Harvey.

Berleant, A. "A Report on the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Aaas) 1976 Symposium 'Art, Science and Technology in Shaping the Environment of the Future'." Leonardo 9(3): 211-12.
Summaries of the content of the following papers presented at this symposium: 'conditions for artists' involvement in shaping the environment' by billy kluver in which projects undertaken by the group 'experiments in art and technology' were described; 'the role of perception in social and economic change' by edmund n. bacon, in which it is emphasized that a new understanding of the universe is required for better use of the environment; gyorgy kepes on 'art and the public environment' which called for appreciation of modern industrial man's need for aesthetic satisfaction in the environment. the papers were discussed by philosophers specializing in environmental aesthetics, including curtis carter, rolf-dieter herrmann, and hilde hein. finally kepes lectured on the theme of the symposium.

Bernstein, D. W., C. Hatch, et al., Eds. Writings through John Cage's music, poetry, and art.
Examines the work of the American composer John Cage (1912-92), with reference to the conference `Here comes everybody: the music, poetry and art of John Cage' held at Mills College in Oakland, California (15-19 Nov. 1995). There are 13 essays. Bernstein reappraises the relationship between Cage's work and 20th century modernism. Jonathan D. Katz interprets Cage's silence on his homosexuality as involving a moral stance. With reference to 4' 33'', Austin Clarkson examines Cage's understanding of spirituality as rooted in psychology. The composer and performer Gordon Mumma documents Cage's work as a performer. Deborah Campana analyses his concept of musical time from his early percussion and prepared piano pieces onwards. John Holzaepfel examines David Tudor's rendering of Solo for Piano from Cage's Concert for Piano and Orchestra (1957-58). Paul van Emmerik, a cataloguer of material relating to Cage, explains the importance of studying Cage's source material. In a symposium, former colleagues of Cage - Mumma, Allan Kaprow, James Tenney, Christian Wolff, Alvin Curran, and Maryanne Amacher - reflect on aspects of his work. In a second symposium, James Pritchett, Tenney, Andrew Culver, and Frances White consider Cage's use of computers and ongoing influence on computer art. Jackson Mac Low surveys Cage's writings in the 1980s, discussing his methods and influences on his written work. Constance Lewallen considers Cage's use of chance and his practice of asking questions when making art. The founder of the Mountain Lake Workshop in West Virginia, Ray Kass provides an account of Cage's activities there, including his methods as a painter. Henning Lohner documents some aspects of the making of the film One, on which he collaborated with Cage between 1982 and 1992.

Bolter, J. D. and D. Gromala (2003). Windows and Mirrors : Interaction Design, Digital Art, and the Myth of Transparency. Cambridge, MIT Press.
In Windows and Mirrors: Interaction Design, Digital Art, and the Myth of Transparency, Jay David Bolter and Diane Gromala argue that, contrary to Donald Norman's famous dictum, we do not always want our computers to be invisible "information appliances." They say that a computer does not feel like a toaster or a vacuum cleaner; it feels like a medium that is now taking its place beside other media like printing, film, radio, and television. The computer as medium creates new forms and genres for artists and designers; Bolter and Gromala want to show what digital art has to offer to Web designers, education technologists, graphic artists, interface designers, HCI experts, and, for that matter, anyone interested in the cultural implications of the digital revolution.

Brown, K. and N. Salvatore "Trends in computer and technological art." Art Criticism 14: 94-106.
Surveys trends in the use of technology in the creation of art in the 1990s. The authors discuss the characteristic features of technology-based art, and identify as general trends in the use of technology in art: as a means of exploring the construction of the self and notions of self identity; simply as a source of design tools for the creation of art; to illustrate and analyse the impact of technology on contemporary everyday life; and as a means of creating art that is interactive in ways not otherwise possible. Artists whose work is described include: Joseph Squier, Linda Dement, Orlan, Laurie Anderson, John Lasseter, Victoria Vesna, Anthony Aziz, Ray MacDonald, Sammy Cucher, Rene Ertzinger, Jenny Holzer, Ingo Gunther, Antonio Muntadas, Regina Frank, Perry Hoberman, Char Davies, Sheldon Brown, and Krzysztof Wodiczko. Work described includes interactive computer pieces, Web sites, film animation, digital photography, virtual reality pieces, performance, video installations, interactive video installations, and art generated by computers themselves using formulae provided by the artist-programmer.

Bureaud, A. "Eduardo Kac defricheur et visionnaire/e. e. cummings of the virtual [Eduardo Kac ground-breaker and visionary/e. e. cummings of the virtual]." Art Press 246: 34-5.
Traces the career of the Brazilian-born artist Eduardo Kac (b.1962). The author notes the range of media in which Kac specializes, including performance art, Web-based art, robotics and biotechnology-inspired work, attributes the invention of holopoetry, telepresence, and biotelematics to Kac, and outlines the creation of his first holography-based poems. She describes his creation in collaboration with Ed Bennet of Orinintorrinco, a robot controlled by telephone, and of the telepresence work Orintorrinco, considers this treatment of the body and space as the main themes in his work, and comments on his Teleporting of an Unknown State (1996), which involves a seed sprouting after receiving daylight through a Web-cam on the Internet. She concludes by asserting that Kac unites technology and aesthetics through his invention of new art media.

Clark, N. (1995). "N + 1 cultures." Art & Text 50: 69.
A review of "N + 1 Cultures," an exhibition at the Artspace, Auckland, New Zealand, from October 12 to November 4, 1994. This show consists of the work of four artists and one scientist (as essayist): Esther Leigh, Giovanni Intra, Vicki Kerr, Denise Kum, and entomologist Robin Craw. The theme of this show is the relationship between art and science; its initial impression, however, is one of strangely recalcitrant scientific stereotyping.

Cleland, K. "Interface: visions of the body and the machine." ART AsiaPacific: 70-5.
Discusses the integration of new technology into art practices in Australia and New Zealand with reference to five artists. The author considers work by the New Zealand artist Maureen Lander, noting her integration of lighting, audio-visual technology and modern synthetic materials into traditional Maori cultural forms, and discusses her collaboration with the New Zealand artist John Fairclough for Digital String Games (1998; illus.). She describes the work of the Australian artist Justine Cooper who uses technological elements including MRI scans, x-rays and microscopy to portray the interior dynamics of the body, and considers works by the Hong Kong-born Canberra-based artist Juliana Wong, with reference to her interest in interactivity, holography, the relationship between physical, virtual and psychological spaces, and language play. She concludes by discussing the work of the Australian artist Melinda Rackham, who uses technology to explore themes including sexuality, gender and identity.

Coupland, K. "All over the map with David Byrne." Graphis 313: 92-9.
In interview, the American artist and musician David Byrne discusses his work. Byrne comments on his interweaving of music and design, explains the idea and production process behind the packaging for his latest recording, with reference to models made by Yuji Yoshimoto, and considers the recurring use of dolls in his work. He outlines the ideas that must be communicated on a record or CD cover, describes his collaborations with the graphic designers Stefan Sagmeister and Gary Koepke, and assesses the role of the costumes he wears on stage in his performances. Byrne discusses the collaborative process and his approach to photography, comments on his book of photographs entitled Strange Ritual and on the conjunction of photographs and text, and concludes by outlining his use of computer technology.

Cox, D. J. (1992). "Caricature, readymades and metamorphosis: visual mathematics in the context of art." Leonardo 25(3-4): 295-302.
Discusses issues regarding visual mathematics and mainstream art in relation to the art market and popular culture in the context of the author's computer-animation work. In the U.S.A. mathematics and computer art forms remain outside the mainstream fine-art market, and the author's work, an interdisciplinary collaborative animation Venus & Milo, was created as a commentary on high art versus low art. The piece included `topological homotopy', filmmaking techniques and caricature.

Drucker, J. "Janet Zweig, Simon Penny, Jonathan Harris, Paul Zelevansky, Dew Harrison, Eduardo Kac, Jon Ippolito." Art Journal 56(3): 14-19.
Describes the work of seven artists - Janet Zweig, Simon Penny, Jonathan Harris, Paul Zelevansky, Dew Harrison, Eduardo Kac and Jon Ippolito - who use different technologies as an integral part of their work. Zweig creates mechanical constructions involving computers which are fed text which they manipulate, then output to paper. Penny builds robotic systems that incorporate sensors and bend and gyrate in an anthropomorphic fashion, and his art explores the implications of such works for aesthetic appreciation. Harris has produced a series of digitally manipulated works involving snapshots of him and his family on holiday and the text of a letter he wrote to his dead grandparents as part of a therapeutic exercise. Zelevansky's work adopts a cross-media approach to the production of computer-based pedagogic systems, including interactive computer works exploring such topics as mythology and human biology. Harrison explores the potential of hypermedia in the context of the personal computer as an educational tool and a means of artistic expression. Writer and artist Kac has used hypertext to produce works that combine literature with visual art, and communications technology in conjunction with robotics in collaborative projects spanning geographical distances. Ippolito uses the Internet as a forum for works he creates in collaboration with Janet Cohen and Keith Frank which explore the process of collaboration itself.

Druckrey, T., Ed. (1994). Iterations: The New Image. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Digital imaging and computer technology have come to permeate our daily experience. From graphic images in bank machines to Hollywood movies awash in high-tech special effects, from advanced scientific visualization to personal digital assistants, the electronic image has changed the way our culture perceives itself and receives its information. A technology that is used throughout culture as a tool for communication, documentation, and creativity has placed itself squarely in the center of our lives. Simply stated, the computer is everywhere, having an impact on nearly everything. Copublished with The International Center of Photography, New York.

Druckrey, T., Ed. (1997). Electronic Culture; Technology; Technology and Visual Representation. New York, Aperture.
The technology of representation and imaging has undergone vast changes. Imaging technologies can now create representations of high-tech warfare, manifest virtual reality, or visualize an atom. This series of essays by philosophers, media theorists, and cultural critics carefully examines these advances and grants special attention to the digital explosion of the 90s. Essays cover everything from the limits of photographic representation in the time of digital imaging to a filmmaker's thoughts on immersive environments. This is not light reading and many essays have an academic tone, but it's an important work for those interested in new media and technologies

Graham, B. (2003). "Conference: User Mode." Art Monthly 267: 37.
A report on the "user_mode: Emotion and Intuition in Art and Design" conference, held at Tate Modern and the Science Museum, London, May 9-11, 2003. The conference examined "emotion and intuition in art and design" and, as such, bridged the gap between physical and online new-media art. It also courageously crossed between art, science, education, research, and design, which have it the mildly deranged charm that is lacking in the usual line-up of normalized theorists and artists. Over the three days, the means of dealing mentally with the incredibly diversity seemed to evolve collaboratively, which was no mean feat for an ambitious symposium.

Grau, O. (2003). Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Although many people view virtual reality as a totally new phenomenon, it has its foundations in an unrecognized history of immersive images. Indeed, the search for illusionary visual space can be traced back to antiquity. In this book Oliver Grau shows how virtual art fits into the art history of illusion and immersion. He describes the metamorphosis of the concepts of art and the image and relates those concepts to interactive art, interface design, agents, telepresence, and image evolution. Grau retells art history as media history, helping us to understand the phenomenon of virtual reality beyond the hype. Grau shows how each epoch used the technical means available to produce maximum illusion. He discusses frescoes such as those in the Villa dei Misteri in Pompeii and the gardens of the Villa Livia near Primaporta, Renaissance and Baroque illusion spaces, and panoramas, which were the most developed form of illusion achieved through traditional methods of painting and the mass image medium before film. Through a detailed analysis of perhaps the most important German panorama, Anton von Werner's 1883 The Battle of Sedan, Grau shows how immersion produced emotional responses. He traces immersive cinema through Cinerama, Sensorama, Expanded Cinema, 3-D, Omnimax and IMAX, and the head mounted display with its military origins. He also examines those characteristics of virtual reality that distinguish it from earlier forms of illusionary art. His analysis draws on the work of contemporary artists and groups ART+COM, Maurice Benayoun, Charlotte Davies, Monika Fleischmann, Ken Goldberg, Agnes Hegedues, Eduardo Kac, Knowbotic Research, Laurent Mignonneau, Michael Naimark, Simon Penny, Daniela Plewe, Paul Sermon, Jeffrey Shaw, Karl Sims, Christa Sommerer, and Wolfgang Strauss. Grau offers not just a history of illusionary space but also a theoretical framework for analyzing its phenomenologies, functions, and strategies throughout history and into the future.

Hight, C. "Christopher Hight: dangerous liaisons - the art of engineering after truth and beauty." M'Ars 13: 21-9.
Discusses the relationship between visual art and engineering, with reference to the British firm Atelier One. The author highlights Atelier One's technological innovation and collaborative work with artists, and considers the contrast between `culture', such as visual art, and `nature', such as science and engineering. He describes Atelier One's construction of the installation Taratantara (1999; illus.) by the British artist Anish Kapoor, and the British artist Rachel Whiteread's House (1993; illus.) and Ghost, and comments on the notion of interdisciplinary work.

Holtzman, S. R. (1998). Digital Mosaics: The Aesthetics of Cyberspace. New York, Simon & Schuster.
Digital Mosaics is the first book to explore the new digital media and the variety of art forms emerging from our computer culture. It is destined to change our traditional perceptions and definitions of digital expression. Through the works of cutting-edge computer artists, composers, and designers, Digital Mosaics explores the possibilities of the digital medium and how it radically transforms the way art is produced and understood by the audience. Presenting an astonishing collection of examples, Digital Mosaics illuminates the qualities that make digital expression different from all previous artistic endeavors. From his discussion of the changing meaning of "original" art -- digital creations are at once infinitely reproducible and essentially ephemeral -- to his insights into the impact this kind of art has on the relationship between artist and audience, Steven Holtzman gives readers an unprecedented look at the new aesthetic that is laying the groundwork for the digital and art worlds of our future.

Hovagimyan, G. H. "Art in the age of spiritual machines (with apologies to Ray Kurzweil)." Leonardo 34: 453-8.
Considers what forms art may take in the age of the post-human being or spiritual machine. The author, an artist who specializes in the area of digital media and network culture, cites the work of the French artist Orlan and the Australian artist Stelarc as examples of art already concerned with human enhancement in aesthetic and bio-technological terms respectively, and describes his own collaboration with Peter Sinclair on an immersive sound environment entitled Heartbreak Hotel (illus.), which explores the subject of spiritual machines. He highlights the traditional interest of art in the human condition, identifies affinities between the creation of art and computer simulations, and relates his ideas on the artistic simulation of artificial intelligence to earlier forms of experimental art, such as that practised by Bruce Nauman and Robert Morris. He proposes that the artistic debate should henceforth centre on networked culture, and concludes by acknowledging that future art might not resemble art as such, and would no longer be object-based but experimental and progressive in nature.

Hutzler, G., B. Gortais, et al. "The Garden of Chances: a visual ecosystem." Leonardo 33: 101-6.
The authors, all based in France, describe a project on which they have collaborated to develop a multi-agent computer system based on natural ecosystems entitled The Garden of Chances and their use of it to create visual images. They explain that the system involves the input of meteorological data recorded at a specific location in England, which is downloaded into the computer in real-time via the Internet, and which affects the development of shapes and their colours projected onto the screen of that computer, describing how these shapes function in the same way as plants in a real ecosystem, with each shape functioning as the visible emanation of some agent reacting to the meteorological data being fed into the computer. The authors outline the complexities of designing such a reactive, multi-agent system and draw parallels between the resulting art and their artistic intentions in creating The Garden of Chance, and abstract art and the artistic intentions of Kandinsky. They explain the philosophy underlying the art work generated by The Garden of Chance, describe how this was realized in the design and implementation of the underlying computer system, and outline their plans to develop it as a tool that will help scientists and artists to consider complex systems from both organizational and aesthetic perspectives. A glossary of terms is appended.

Huws, U. (2000). "Nature, technology and art: the emergence of a new relationship?" Leonardo 33(1): 33-40.
The emergence of a new relationship between nature, technology, and art is discussed. Twentieth-century art has produced occasional and sporadic experiments to represent, comment on, or simulate nature in an artistic form as behavior rather than likeness. A small but largely neglected group of artists, including the Artist Robot Group in Toronto, Canada, has opted to use computer to model or set in motion patterns of behavior that, through analogy or mimicry, can parallel those found in the natural world and give rise to the responses of surprise, insight, amusement, or delight that are evoked by observing other forms of life. While artists, including Rebecca Allen and Ebon Fisher, have moved closer to the world of computing in their quest for newer and subtler ways to model, parody, or comment on the natural world's behavior, computer scientists have been meeting them halfway in attempts to simulate natural processes, which have come to be described as artificial life.

Jones, C. A. and P. L. Galison, Eds. (1998). Picturing Science Producing Art. London, Routledge.
Between the disciplines of art history and the history of science lies a growing field of inquiry into what science and art share as both image-making and knowledge-producing activities. The contributors of Picturing Science, Producing Art occupy this intermediate zone to analyze both scientific and aesthetic representations, utilizing disciplinary perspectives that range from art history to sociology, history and philosophy of science to gender studies, cultural history to the philosophy of mind. Organized in five sites--Styles, The Body, Seeing Wonders, Objectivity/Subjectivity, and Cultures of Vision--their topics extend from Cinquecento theories of female reproduction to the technologies of cloning, from medieval depictions of the stigmata to electrical metaphors for sex, from astronomical drawings to radioencephalography, from Phoenician griffons carved in ivory to factories cast in concrete. The internationally renowned contributors go beyond both science wars and culture wars by exploring substantive links between systems of visual representation and knowledge in science and art. Contributors include Svetlana Alpers, Jonathan Crary, Arnold Davidson, Carlo Ginzburg, Donna Haraway, Bruno Latour, and Simon Schaffer.

Jones, S. (2003). "Synthetics: A History of the Electronically Generated Image in Australia." Leonardo 36(3): 187-95, 199.
Part of a special section on the cultural roots of globalization. The writer, a video artist, briefly surveys the early years of computer-graphic and video-synthesizer-driven image production in Australia. He opens with a discussion of the first (known) Australian data visualization, in 1957, and proceeds through the compositing of computer graphics and video effects in the music videos of the late 1980s. He goes on to survey the types of work produced by workers on the computer-graphics and video-synthesis systems of the early period and draws out some indications of the influences and interactions among artists and engineers and the technical systems available to them, which guided the evolution of the field for artistic production.

Kirkpatrick, D. "Sonia Landy Sheridan." Woman's Art Journal 1(1): 56-9.
Traces the career of printmaker and draughtsman sonia landy sheridan (b.1925), best known for her work with copy-machine imaging systems. in 1970 sheridan founded the generative systems programme at the school of the art institute of chicago, illinois, to explore the creative possibilities of new technologies. she believes that artists must take the lead in helping people use technology creatively to keep control of their lives and their world.

Kuebel, C. K. and B. Delaney "Ars Electronica 2001: impact?" Art New England 23(1): 22-3.
A review of the 2001 Ars Electronica festival, held in Linz, Austria. Assembling many important artists, scientists, and thinkers, this year's festival had the theme of "TAKEOVER: who is making the art of tomorrow?" Fashion photographer Oliviero Toscani's presentation was one of only a few that seemed to address the theme with any guts. Most participants focused on who is doing the art of tomorrow. There were many inspiring examples of technologically enhanced art whose influence on culture will be important.

Lasay, F. "Geo/centr/e/i/city: the Earth as Center." Leonardo 35: 233-8.
Discusses the Web-based exhibition Geo/centr/e/i/city: the Earth as Center ( /), in which seven Filipino digital artists created works focusing on island folklore surrounding volcanoes and earthquakes. The author notes that the artists met with scientists at the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology before the start of the exhibition, explains how the various areas of work at the Institute provided material for the artists, in particular the Active Faults Mapping research, and argues that the subsequent exhibition enabled artists and audiences to see scientific visualizations as art. She concludes by discussing works by four of the artists: Gulo sa Bahay (household chaos) (2001; illus.) by Aileen Familara; Asuang Steals Fire from Gurugang (2001; illus.) by Al Manrique; Angolo and Anarabrab (2001; illus.) by Ferdinand Doctolero; and her own work Heaven and Earth (2001; illus.).

Leggett, M. "Drawing the thread." Artlink 21(3): 34-7.
Considers the relationship between drawing and technology. The author focuses on drawing works and projects by the artists Paul Thomas, Harriet Birks, Alyssa Rothwell, Mr Snow, Peter Callas, Harold Cohen, Simon Biggs, Horst Kiechle, John Tchalenko, and Damien Everett, noting their views on traditional and digital drawing with reference to issues including spatial drawing, software development, architectural design, and performance art. He concludes by focusing on the ways in which the Internet enables collaboration between artists working with different digital drawing techniques.

Leopoldseder, H. and C. Schopf, Eds. (2001). CyberArts 2001. New York, Springer Verlag.
Presents works from marts, science, and research from the categories Computer Animation/Visual effects, Digital Musics, Interactive Art and .net on a common platform thus providing a current survey of the international scene of digital media art. Over the past twenty years the extensive digitalization of every area of life has triggered a profound cultural transformation. For twenty years the Ars Electronica Festival has been discussing, analyzing and commenting this transformation. Since 1987 the Prix Ars Electronica has brought together the creative forces that formulate its foundations and make this discourse accessible to a wider audience with their works. Numerous individual articles together with extensive illustrations and a comprehensive list of addresses contribute towards making the book "Cyberarts 99" one of the most up-to-date publications as well as reference works for those interested in media art

Leopoldseder, H., C. Schopf, et al., Eds. (1997). Cyberarts. New York, Springer-Verlag.
Presents submissions from participants from around the world to the annual Prix Ars Electronica in the categories of `.net', `interactive art', `computer animation', and `computer music'. There are eight essays, of which five are relevant to the scope of ABM, and statements by participants about their work. Leopoldseder assesses cyberart as the art of the future. Schopf surveys the winners of the Golden Nicas of the Prix Ars Electronica 1997, which in the category of interactive art was awarded to Toshio Iwai and Ryuichi Sakamoto for Music Plays Images X Images Plays Music, and in the category computer animation was awarded to Scott Squires for special effects in Dragonheart. Joichi Ito discusses the aesthetics of the Internet. Machiko Kusahara considers the new opportunities for making art offered by computers and telecommunications. Michael Naimark describes his favourite four works of interactive art of the past 30 years.

Livingstone, M. "Built enviroments." tate: the art magazine 28: 42-9.
In interview, the British artists Langlands and Bell, who have collaborated since 1978, discuss their work. They describe their first joint project, The Kitchen (1978; col. illus.), an old kitchen reconstructed from material salvaged from derelict buildings in London's East End, juxtaposed with its brand new equivalent, and explain their subsequent decision to scale down their work and use architectural models, highlighting installations that have evaded this move, such as Surrounding Time (1990) and the Billboard Sculptures (1992-95). They note the reference to the National Gallery in London in Traces of Living (1986), outline their interactions with architects and engineers, and justify their interest in buildings designed for diplomatic and strategic purposes. They consider the sculpture Eclipse (1998; col. illus.), created for the Henry Moore Institute in Leeds, England, and comment on modernist design and architecture, and the British art scene. They explore the impact which the events of 11 Sept. 2001 have had on some of their works, with particular reference to New York-Mecca (Dyptich) (1996; illus.).

Lucie-Smith, E. and P. Lafuente "Paris: reinventing `la ville' - survivors of the siecle." Art Review 53: 45-7.
In a series of articles dedicated to the art scene in Paris, examines the work of artists working in the city from 1968 to today. The author profiles Jean Dubuffet (1901-85), listing his exhibitions and noting his support of Art Brut, explains that Dubuffet and other older French artists including Jean Fautrier eclipsed their younger counterparts in the second half of the 20th century, and compares French art from the 1960s unfavourably with American Pop art from the same period. He acknowledges the role of Cesar and other French artists who were commissioned by the state in the 1980s in ``reconciling a large public to contemporary art'', refers to the work of Pierre et Gilles, Christian Boltanski, and Sophie Calle, and concludes by highlighting the significant absence of painting on the contemporary Paris art scene. In an insert, Lafuente discusses collaborations between contemporary French artists, designers, architects, scientists, musicians, and theorists, focusing on works highlighted in the exhibition Traversees at the Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, curated by Hans Ulrich Obrist.

Lunenfeld, P. "In search of the telephone opera: from communications to art." Afterimage 25(1): 8-10.
Considers the potential of the Internet and related computerized communications networks as a medium for culture. The author explains that the Internet has attracted significant interest from artists due to its power as a communications medium and draws historical parallels between the Internet and the use by culture providers of the telephone in the 20th century such as Dada artists' proposals for using the telephone to convey images, as in Laszlo Moholy-Nagy's Telephonbilder (1922) experiment and Allen S. Bridge's 1980 Apology Line in New York City. He identifies two methods regularly used by artists to create work using the Internet as both a medium and as an integrated component. The first, called the Exquisite Corpse, involves producing work that is intended to be incorporated into random collaborations with the Internet-based work of other artists, and the second, the Digital Questionnaire, involves soliciting data from other Internet users, which is then used as the basis for art works. He observes the emerging trend which involves the production of work that addresses the specific nature of the Internet, and includes works that, in avant-garde fashion, attempt to block its use as a communications medium, and works which use the Html code that defines Web pages as a visual element.

Lutticken, S. "The footprint and the readymade." Afterimage 29(1): 4-5.
Examines the relationship between photography and realism, with particular reference to the notion of the ready-made. The author comments on Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin's book Remediation (Cambridge, Massachusetts; London: MIT Press, 1999), explores the notion of the footprint as art, with reference to the views of Lev Manovich, Charles Sanders Pierce, and Roland Barthes, and discusses the mimetic role of photography in the work of the American photographer Walker Evans. He considers the development of the ready-made, with reference to Marcel Duchamp's Fountain (1917) and Evans's volume Pictures of the Time, describes Duchamp's sculpture Torture-Morte (1959; illus.), highlighting the association of photography and ready-mades in this piece, and Evans's Bedroom in the Burrough's House, Hale County, Alabama (1936), and notes Duchamp's desire to develop an intellectual form of art. He focuses on attempts by artists including Cindy Sherman and Jeff Wall to overcome the association of photography with documentation, and concludes by citing the artist Gerhard Richter's views on the reflection of society in art, and considering the possible future development of photography.

Lynn, V. "Jennifer Turpin and Michaelie Crawford: the choreography of time, light and water." Art and Australia 39: 238-47.
Discusses the work of the Australian artists Jennifer Turpin and Michaelie Crawford. The author discusses the incorporation of water in Turpin and Crawford's environmental and kinetic works, refers to their early careers in installation and sculpture, and comments on their decision to collaborate and their aim of achieving simplicity. She considers the relationship between the aesthetic and the ecological in their work, highlighting The Memory Line (1996; illus.) and Tied to Tide (1999; illus.), and suggests that they are influenced by the work of Oskar Schlemmer (1888-1943). She notes their work with the building industry, the sciences, and industrial design, describes their proposal Sailing the Tide, a monumental kinetic sculpture for Auckland Viaduct Harbour, and compares their work with that of Donald Judd, Carl Andre, and Tony Smith. She places their work within the context of the kinetic and sculptural traditions, referring to the work of Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Jean Tinguely, and Rebecca Horn, comments on the form, sound, and movement of Water Works IV (1992; illus.), Tank (1997; illus.), and Water Swing (2000; illus.), and concludes by stating that their work provokes contemplation.

Malina, R. F. and B. Wands "The stone age of the digital arts; Director's statement: a moment in time; Exhibiting artists." Leonardo 35(5): 463-6.
Introduces a special issue of Leonardo devoted to the 10th New York Digital Salon and lists the names and addresses of exhibiting artists. Malina, executive editor of Leonardo, discusses the history of computer artists and describes a workshop in July 2002 at the Schloss Dagstuhl Centre in Wadern, Germany on aesthetic computing. He observes that the digital arts are still at a very early stage and that their future will depend more on the inspiration produced by new technologies rather than the technologies themselves. Wands, director of the New York Digital Salon, discusses how the 10th exhibition, Vectors: Digital Art of Our Time, differs from the usual format, and argues that it is the first international review of digital art. He describes how 10 international curators were asked to each pick 10 works, and concludes by detailing the four phases of the project: publication of the Leonardo special issue; the Web site; the New York exhibition; and the international tour. Details of the exhibiting artists include their names, addresses, and Web sites. The featured artists are: (Alessandra Ghidoni), Benjamin Weil, Vivian Selbo, and Andrea Scott, Robert Adrian, Mathieu Briand, the Bureau of Inverse Technology, John Cage, Shane Cooper, Vuk Cosic, Chris Cunningham, Char Davies, Anthony Discenza, Dumb Type, etoy.corporation, Masaki Fujihata, Alex Galloway and RSG, Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz, Syd Garon, Kenneth Goldsmith, Entropy8Zuper!, Lynn Hershman, Perry Hoberman, Pierre Huyghe, I/O /D (Matthew Fuller, Colin Green, and Simon Pope), Ryoji Ikeda, Toshio Iwai, JODI, Paul Johnson and RSG, Eduardo Kac, Hachiya Kazuhiko, John Klima, Knowbotic Research, Joan La Barbara, George Legrady, Bernhard Leitner, Olia Lialina, David Link, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Christian Marclay, Thomas McIntosh and Emmanuel Madan ([The User]), Paul D. Miller, Laurent Mignonneau and Christa Sommerer, Mongrel/Graham Harwood, Antoni Muntadas, Mark Napier, Shirin Neshat, Carsten Nicolai, Josh On, Nam June Paik, Garth Paine, Chris Petit, Markus Popp a.k.a. Oval, Cecile le Prado, Walid Ra'ad, Jean-Claude Risset, Pipilotti Rist, David Rokeby, Nicolas Schoffer, Gebhard Sengmuller, John F. Simon, Jr, Sponge, Morton Subotnick, Atau Tanaka, Daniel Teruggi, David S. Touretzky, Marek Walczak, Martin Wattenberg, Hildegard Westerkamp, Trevor Wishart, and Maciej Wisniewski.

Malloy, J., Ed. (2003). Women, Art, and Technology. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Text is a compendium of the work of women artists who have played a central role in the development of new media practice. Includes overviews of the history and foundations of the field, classic papers by women working in art and technology, and a series of critical essays looking to the future. Illustrated. Malloy is an electronic fiction and Internet pioneer and editor of the electronic publication Arts Wire Current. Although women have been at the forefront of art and technology creation, no source has adequately documented their core contributions to the field. Women, Art, and Technology, which originated in a Leonardo journal project of the same name, is a compendium of the work of women artists who have played a central role in the development of new media practice. The book includes overviews of the history and foundations of the field by, among others, artists Sheila Pinkel and Kathy Brew; classic papers by women working in art and technology; papers written expressly for this book by women whose work is currently shaping and reshaping the field; and a series of critical essays that look to the future. Artist contributors include computer graphics artists Rebecca Allen and Donna Cox; video artists Dara Birnbaum, Joan Jonas, Valerie Soe, and Steina Vasulka; composers Cecile Le Prado, Pauline Oliveros, and Pamela Z; interactive artists Jennifer Hall and Blyth Hazen, Agnes Hegedus, Lynn Hershman, and Sonya Rapoport; virtual reality artists Char Davies and Brenda Laurel; net artists Anna Couey, Monika Fleischmann and Wolfgang Strauss, Nancy Paterson, and Sandy Stone; and choreographer Dawn Stoppiello. Critics include Margaret Morse, Jaishree Odin, Patric Prince, and Zoe Sofia.

Mann, S. (2003). "Intelligent Bathroom Fixtures and Systems: EXISTech Corporation's Safebath Project." Leonardo 36(4): 207-210.
EXISTech Corporation’scomputer networks, controlsystems and image-sensortechnology facilitate hygienictouchless control of plumbingxtures. Two of EXISTech’ssensors are described here indetail: an active infrared faucetsensor and a passive infraredauto ush sensor. These devicesallow internetworked plumbingsystems to help facility man-agers and law-enforcementpersonnel remotely monitor theoperation of bathroomxtures. Intelligent xtures andsystems based on quantimetricsensing technology enhance theprivacy of law-abiding users byeliminating the need for invasivepolicing of restrooms. Newcomputer-vision algorithms alsoautomatically detect accidents,as well as vandalism andcontraband disposal, to assistremote monitoring by lawenforcement.

Mitchell, W. J. "`Fast forward'." Art Papers 22(4): 20-3.
In interview, William J. Mitchell, Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences, and Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, discusses his career to date, with particular reference to his work on digital media applied to architecture and design. He traces the roots of his interest in Computer Aided Design (CAD), and assesses the impact of digital technology on architectural practice, quoting as an example Frank Gehry's design for the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao in Bilbao, Spain. He considers the integration of computer technology in the educational system and acknowledges the increasing importance of visual skills in the contemporary world. He examines the benefits and drawbacks of geographically distributed, Internet-based projects such as the one which was used by students at MIT to collaborate with students from the Lisbon Institute of Technology and the School of Architecture in Oporto, Portugal, and concludes by considering the future of digital telecommunication.

Moser, M. A. and D. Macleod, Eds. (1996). Immersed in Technology; Art and Virtual Environments. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Virtual Reality, like many technologies in their infancy, was not developed with a singular purpose in mind, and still lacks a fixed raison d'etre. Seizing the moment, the writers and artists in this book have taken a rare initiative by proposing a host of creative forms and ideas for the multifunctional use of virtual environments." -- Andrew Ross, Director, American Studies Program, and Professor of Comparative Literature, New York University
The Banff Centre for the Arts has become synonymous for what's hot in the electronic arts, a place where professional artists come to produce new work and develop new skills. This book brings together critical essays along with artists' projects to explore the many issues raised by the creation of virtual environments and to provide a glimpse into worlds that have been much discussed but rarely seen. The book opens with eleven essays that approach the social and cultural implications of cyberspace from the perspective of cultural studies, communications, art history, art criticism, English, and women's studies. These are followed by nine virtual environments (along with statements of what the artists are trying to accomplish in both theoretical and technical terms), created over a three-year period as part of the Art and Virtual Environments Project at the Banff Centre. Together, writers and artists examine the consequences in cyberspace for race and identity, materiality and the body, landscape and narrative. Specific implications of the masculinist and rationalist biases of cyberspace are also discussed. Preface: Douglas MacLeod. Introduction: Mary Anne Moser. Essays: N. Katherine Hayles. Cameron Bailey. Nell Tenhaaf. Frances Dyson. Allucquère Rosanne Stone. Avital Ronell. Rob Milthorp. Jeanne Randolph. Loretta Todd. Margaret Morse. Erkki Huhtamo. Artworks: Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun. Michael Scroggins and Steven Dickson. Marcos Novak. Michael Naimark. Brenda Laurel and Rachel Strickland. Perry Hoberman. Ron Kuivila. Diane Gromala and Yacov Sharir. Toni Dove and Michael Mackenzie. Will Bauer and Steven Gibson. A Leonardo Book

Oppenheimer, R. "" Afterimage 26(5): 3.
Reports on the California Governor's Conference on the Arts held in Los Angeles (7-10 Dec. 1998) entitled `Beyond the millennium: redefining the arts for the 21st century', discussing the future relationship of the Arts and technology, combining panel discussions, papers, trade exhibitions, and performances. The author laments the lack of artists' involvement in the proceedings, and suggests an absence of awareness amongst those involved of issues concerning artists. He praises some panels, and the discussions which developed from them, notes a controversial contribution, and comments on the participation of people from other American states, and from Europe and Japan, highlighting presentations from representatives of art institutions in Japan, Italy, and Germany, which he remarks underlined the lack of arts funding within the U.S.A. He remarks on the last day's press conference to launch CaliforniaCulture.Net (http:/ /, and observes that the conference provides indications as to the form future discussions on arts and technology should take.

Pangloss "It can't be art because it's too much fun." Everything: 18-19.
Discusses Self Storage, an exhibition of interactive installations by the members of the Royal College of Art's Acorn Research Cell, which includes Brian Eno, Laurie Anderson, Hanna Redler and Natasha Michaels. The author examines the integration of art and technology which characterizes the show, and speculates whether this type of art could bring about a regeneration in collaborative art projects, which, he believes, have been supressed by the individualistic attitudes of the 1980s.

Paul, C. "Renderings of digital art." Leonardo 35: 471-84.
Discusses the history of digital art from the Memex device in 1945 through the introduction of the terms hypertext and hypermedia in 1961 to the use of video and satellites in the 1970s and the characteristics of digital art in the 21st century. She presents 10 selected works for the 10th New York Digital Salon: netomat(TM) (1999-; illus.) by Maciej Wisniewski; Apartment (2001; illus.) by Martin Wattenberg and Marek Walczak; Glasbead (1999-2000; illus.) by John Klima; (2000; illus.) by; Carnivore (2001-; illus.) by Alex Galloway and RSG; A-Volve (1994-95; illus.) by Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau; Genesis (1999; illus.) by Eduardo Kac; Timetable (1999; illus.) by Perry Hoberman; Pockets Full of Memories (2001) by George Legrady; and Giver of Names (1991-; illus.) by David Rokeby.

Penny, S. "Modern Machine Art." Artlink 20(3): 44-9.
Discusses the use of cybernetic technologies to make art. The author surveys the history of the use of technology in art, beginning with the outdoor, interactive light sculpture created by Nicholas Schoffer in 1956 and encompassing work by Nam June Paik, Shuya Abe, Norman White, and Kinaston McShine, and various festivals and exhibitions organized by, among others, Robert Rauschenberg, Billy Kluver, the curator Pontus Hulten, Jack Burnham, and Kluver's group show EAT: Experiments in Art and Technology which furthered the use and understanding of the potential of cybernetics in art. He describes the relationship between software and hardware in terms of Cartesian mind/body dualism, finds parallels between art using computers and Conceptual art, traces the move from cybernetics to artificial intelligence technologies by artists, and accounts for the emergence of the alternative artificial intelligence movement in the late 1980s. Citing the work of Hans Haacke and Juan Downey to illustrate his account of the development of art from Kineticism to a more integrated approach, to the use of technology as one guided by cybernetic theory, he concludes by accounting for the differences between the use of cybernetics and artificial intelligence in contemporary art.

Polli, A. "Virtual space and the construction of memory: installation and performance work." Leonardo 31: 103-9.
The American artist Andrea Polli traces the development of her work using computers, multimedia, electronics and robotics from the late 1980s to the present. She explains that her work takes as its main theme the relationship between actual physical space and the virtual space of memory, and describes works from her oeuvre in chronological order to illustrate her interests and the development of themes and artistic strategies. She discusses Chaos Systems in Musical Improvisation (1989), a computer system for musical improvisation based on the Lorenz attractor; the installation White Wall/Black Hole (1993), which worked as a complex metaphor for human memory, involving walls covered with flour, which reacted to noise vibrations from the street outside; the installation Appetite 4 (1995), for which she assembled objects which illustrated her personal desires, for example for food and safety; Fetish, May I Help You (1997), which used objects suspended on glass panels to examine the issue of memory in virtual and physical space; The Twins, (1997); a performance work created for the site-specific project The Observatory held in Vilnius, which constructed a metaphor for internal and external space; Tight (1997), a collaborative work with Louise McKissick and Barbara Droth consisting of a computer interface to control images seen through an antique stereoscope; and her most recent project Gape, which explores real and false motion and appearance.

Porett, T. "Cyberart considerations." Art Journal 53(3): 32-3.
Examines the impact of recent developments in technology on the artist. The author describes a range of current technological aids for artists and considers their implications. He observes that an increase in the use of media such as computers has enabled artists to incorporate elements including text and sound into their work, and has also encouraged collaboration between artists. He describes the impact of technology as a `new renaissance' and concludes by noting that technology has encouraged artists to become part of society and to adopt a `mainstream role in...culture'.

Punt, M. a. R. P. (2001). The Postdigital Membrane: Imagination, Technology and Desire. Portland, Intellect.
Pepperell (an artist and author of The post-human condition) and Punt (a filmmaker who has previously researched 19th century technology) believe the "digital age" paradigm being applied to the new century has too many intellectual restrictions in its reductionist, on-off logic. Instead, they propose the metaphor of a living "postdigital" membrane to describe the dynamic and unpredictable flow between art, computing, philosophy, and science. "The power of the membrane metaphor," they write, "is its dual and contradictory function: like a transparent wall, it both connects and divides." They employ the metaphor here to explore how our understandings of imagination, technology, and human desire are changing in whatever one chooses to call this new era. ... A provocative contribution to our understanding of this turbulent period of human evolution. The authors discuss the history of technological development, its likely future trajectory, and the imperatives driving human effort and imagination. Although the technological revolution seems, in a few short years, to have infiltrated every aspect of our lives, the authors of this book dispute the accepted wisdom that we are living in a Digital Age. They argue that the digital paradigm is absolutely inadequate for representing the continuous reality of life.

Relph, T. "Elevated wetlands: Toronto's shambling beasts." Public Art Review 10(2): 9-13.
Discusses a public art work created by the Canadian artist Noel Harding entitled Elevated Wetlands (1997/8) installed in wetlands beside a motorway approach to downtown Toronto. The work consists of large, tiered animal-like structures created by industrial plastic, each of which supports a grouping of plants and trees selected for their ability to filter chemical pollutants from water. Water is pumped into the structures from the surrounding wetlands, purified by the plants, then drained back into the wetlands from which it was taken. The author places the work in the context of Toronto's troubled attempts to introduce contemporary public art since the 1960s. He explains the city's traditional reluctance to give over space to work by contemporary artists and describes some of its unsuccessful attempts to develop a more sympathetic approach. These include the controversial installation of The Archer by Henry Moore (1889-1986) as part of Finnish architect Viljo Revell's design for the new city hall in the late 1960s; the gift of the publicly reviled massive sculpture Canadian Airmen's Memorial to the city by Oscar Nemon in 1984; and Francesco Pirelli's unpopular Monument to Multiculturalism (1985). In recent years, the city authorities have reformulated their policy on the acquisition of public art works, and Harding's work has benefited from the required collaboration between city planners, engineers and artist.

Rieser, M., A. Zapp, et al., Eds. New screen media: cinema/art/narrative.
A collection of critical essays with a DVD on the subject of narrative in the new screen media of expanded cinema, computer games, interactive broadcast, multimedia, and hypertext, which is divided into two parts. The first part comprises four sections on the definitions, origins, convergences, and further possibilities of narrative with essays by Sean Cubitt, Paul Willemen, Soke Dinkla, Peter Weibel, Annika Blunck, Lev Manovich, Andrea Zapp, Alex Butterworth and John Wyver, Chris Hales, Ken Feingold, Jon Dovey, Martin Rieser, Eku Wand, and Grahame Weinbren. The second part consists of four sections on the restructuring of time, the redefining of space, the expanded screen experience, and the personalized interface with essays by Jill Scott, Toni Dove, George Legrady, Malcolm Le Grice, Bill Seaman, Luc Courchesne, Jeffrey Shaw, Merel Mirage, Zoe Beloff, Michael Buckley, and Graham Harwood. The DVD, which is made in association with the Zentrum fur Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM) in Karlsruhe, Germany presents examples of interactive work and videos which explore the convergence of the cinematic and digital arts by practitioners who include Zoe Beloff, Michael Buckley, Luc Courchesne, Toni Dove, Ken Feingold, Chris Hales, Graham Harwood, George Legrady, Martin Rieser, Jill Scott, Bill Seaman, Jeffrey Shaw, Eku Wand, Grahame Weinbren, and Andrea Zapp.

Sakane, I. (1989). "Introduction to Interactive Art." Wonderland of Science and Art - Invitation to Science Art.
guest editor at Leonardo. the journal's comments: Itsuo Sakane was born in Tsingtao, China, in 1930. In 1934 he went back to Japan with his parents. He is the President of two schools: International Academy of Media Arts and Sciences (IAMAS), and Institute of Advanced Media Arts and Sciences (IAMAS). He was a journalist from the 1950s until 1990, covering the fields of art, science, and technology as a staff writer for the Asahi Shimun. After retiring from the Asahi, he worked as a professor at SFC of the Keio University until 1996, and also worked to establish the IAMAS in April1996. The Graduate School of IAMAS opened in April, 2001. He was an International Co-Editor for Leonardo from1985 to 1995 and is currently an Honorary Editor.

Sakane has published many books on his critics and essays based on his travels and interviews in the field between art and science. He has organized many exhibitions in these boundary fields as a director and a chief curator. His major publications include: "The Coordinate of Beauty", "Museum of Fun", "Katachi Mandala: Thinking through Seeing", "The Passage of Image" and "Between Art and Science". Major exhibitions he has organized include: "World of Holography", "Museum of Fun I, II", "Arts for Light & Illusion", "Phenomenart","Invitation to Intaractive Art at Kanagawa Science-Park, 1989", "Science-Art Gallery at Japan Pavilion in Expo '92", "1989 Biennale of Interaction '95, '97, '99,'01". His commissioned works include: "Japanese Artists" section for ELECTRA, Paris,1983; "Robot Sculpture: Sentimental Machine Exhibition", Avignon, 1986; "Exhibition for Invited French Artists: Les Artistes Français Au Japon", 1988.

Schwarz, H.-P. (1997). Media-Art-History, Karlsruhe: ZKM/Center for Art and Media. New York, Prestel.
The Media Museum at the ZKM / Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe forms a bridge between new and emerging art and technologies. It shows for the first time an international collection of interactive art works and allows the public to experience the installations. The close relation between art history and media technology is described and illustrated, and provides a vision of the possible future of art. 'Media - Art - History' defines the position of multimedia art now. The catalogue section shows how mass media and new technologies have influenced art during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Sheridan, S. L. "Generative Systems Versus Copy Art: A Clarification of Terms and Ideas." Leonardo 16(2): 103-8.
Discusses the origins of the term 'copy art', coined in the early 1970s to describe art works produced by means of various copy machines. the author explains the inaccuracy of the term, and the programme established at the school of the art institute of chicago, illinois, which was called 'generative art' and was designed to study the impact of such machines on the art-making process and to research further possibilities of photography, computers, copy machines and other technology. the methods used by different types of copy machines are described and means by which they can be manipulated are discussed in relation to the work of generative systems artists. finally, the author examines the sociological nature of the copy of art development.

Sheridan, S. L. "Generative Systems a Decade Later: A Personal Report." Afterimage 6(7): 7-9.
Assesses the generative systems programme at the school of the art institute of chicago, illinois, which seeks to integrate contemporary electronic tools into art training. it is felt that after 10 years of work and development the programme is viable to both students and educators. it has also been an aid to industry, and important for the democratic role which artists must play in society in the crucial years ahead.

Sholette, G. "Counting on your collective silence: notes on activist art as collaborative practice." Afterimage 27(3): 18-20.
Questions why collaborative art practice is considered exceptional, when throughout all other areas of society collaborative activity is the norm, examines the way in which collective practice is perceived, and aims to provide an insight into the reasons why some artists choose to work collaboratively, and others do not. The author examines the position of collectivity within mass culture, referring to the science fiction genre, and specifically the feature film The Matrix (1999), and explores the construct of group identity. He presents excerpts from the minutes of three political artist groups in New York: Artists Meeting for Cultural Change, active between 1975 and 1977; Political Art Documentation and Distribution, active between 1980 and 1986; and REPOhistory, founded in 1989; each of which is concerned with the way in which group members interact. The author assesses the position of the activist art collective within society, drawing on the writings of Derrida and Deleuze, and in relation to the art market, debating the notion of a group signature. The text is interspersed with quotations from other people's writings on artistic collaboration and other related issues.

Sieling, N., Ed. (1989). The techno/logical imagination: machines in the garden of art. Minneapolis, Intermedia Arts.
Catalogue to an exhibition exploring the new languages that fuse art and technology and examining aesthetic questions raised by computer-generated art. Included are works by MANUAL (Ed Hill and Suzanne Bloom), James Seawright, George Legrady, Alan Rath, Roman Verostko, John Manning, Gretchen Bender, Nancy Burson, Peter D'Agostino, Chris Crawford, Juan Downy. An introduction by Sieling surveys the key issues among the works and discusses ethical concerns about the ability of new technologies to simulate real phenomena. There are five more essays. Nancy Roth notes a constant feature of modernism: an unresolved tension between art and technology. Martha Rosler writes on image simulations and computer manipulations, and Christine Tamblyn on cybernetic technologies. Pamela McCorduck discusses artificial intelligence with reference to a computer program called AARON. Brian Winston examines the basic confusion concerning the definition and history of technology in the context of the impact of technology on the arts.

Slemmons, R. "The new automat." Blackflash 14(1): 4-7.
The author considers the growth of digital technology throughout the last 10 years and presents conflicting viewpoints regarding the possible benefits to creativity and the development of photography. The author states that artists, including Jeff Wall, Gary Hill, Martina Lopez, Paul Berger and Carol Flax, are prepared to experiment with whatever technology is available but are not constrained by it, and describes interactive works by Lewis Baltz, George Legrady and Lynn Hershman, who maximize the potential of digital technology. He examines the extent to which artists are using digital technology to create collages, comments on the uses that museums and galleries can make of new technology and notes that the number of artists who produce their work on a digital format such as the CD-ROM is increasing. He concludes by suggesting that art and technology do not have to be mutually exclusive.

Sommerer, C. and L. Mignonneau "Art as a living system: interactive computer artworks." Leonardo 32: 165-73.
The artists Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau, who are based in Kyoto, Japan, describe some of the works they have created in collaboration since 1992 using interactive computer-based systems to explore biological evolution, in which living organisms function as an interface. Their first such work was an installation entitled Interactive Plant Growing (1993; illus.), which consisted of a computer program which produced visual 3-dimensional images simulating the growth of plants; the simulated plant growth was controlled by the responses of real plants to the movements of visitors to the installation. For A-Volve (1994; illus.) - a computer program depicting the evolutionary and predatory behaviour of fish, and permitting human intervention in those processes - they expanded this approach to incorporate the theories and strategies of artificial intelligence. Phototropy (1995; illus.) refined this strategy for interactivity further, permitting the visitor to influence developments during the lifecycle of a butterfly through the use of flashlights. For GENMA (1996; illus.), visitors are able to create, manipulate and explore the genetic design of artificial creatures using a touch screen. They conclude by considering the implications of their work for the role of the artist as author of an art work, and for definitions of art.

Sommerer, C. and L. Mignonneau (1998). Art Science. New York, Springer-Verlag.
DIE ZEIT, September 12 1998
For the time being, the best overview of this renaissance of interaction between art and science is furnished by the collection Art@Science, edited by Sommerer and Mignonneau. Art@Science provides a multifaceted view of the trailblazers of computer technology. Whether artist, scientist, historian or the director of one the new museums for media art, aptly selected international experts present their views on an advanced level but remain nonetheless generally understandable as they lead us through the extremely complex topics covered in this well organized volume. In recent years a new type of artist has appeared on the scene. This new breed is active in the main centers of research and part of an internationally well-connected polyglot scene that has access to current and state of the art materials. These artists participate, with aesthetic methods and objectives, directly in the further development of the computer medium. In pursuit of special effects and realistic virtual illusions, art and science are approaching one another on the most advanced levels of technology The kind of artist who is both artist and scientist is now returning. The slogan-like warning against a split into "two cultures," preached by Charles P. Snow forty years ago, is rapidly dissolving away and the well-worn separation of art and technology is dispossessed once again.

Spalter, A. M. (1999). The Computer in the Visual Arts. Reading, Addison Wesley.
An excellent introduction to computer graphics, The Computer in the Visual Arts covers the historical evolution of the computer as it relates to the creation of artwork. Author Anne Morgan Spalter interviews contemporary artists for insights into their favorite techniques and approaches to planning, developing, and outputting their artwork. Anyone who uses a PC for creating digital art should look to this book for guidance on the technical, practical, and theoretical aspects of design and production. Although the author uses plenty of technical detail, historical facts, and art theory, the book also includes a good deal of practical information. For example, The Computer in the Visual Arts covers popular software programs; explains different types of printers, including their benefits and drawbacks; and defines terms (helpfully, in boldface) succinctly, so you can learn the basics. The chapters on 3D graphics are a perfect example, explaining simple terms such as primitives and lofting; defining more technical terms such as fractals and other algorithmic processes; and offering hands-on insight into how artists use 3D software, special effects, and rendering processes creatively. Chapters end with suggestions for further reading and exercises you can work through on your own. The book provides loads of information on composition--that is, arranging the form and color of artwork and deciding on the use of space and scale. There are many images from contributing artists with explanations of their approach to digital art, and more of these images are included in a four-color section. The appendices to the book discuss contemporary art periods such as modernism and postmodernism, elements of computer theory such as symbolic logic, and lists of URLs and books you can turn to for more information. --Kathleen Caster

Timothy, D., Ed. (1999). Ars Electronica: Facing the Future: A Survey of Two Decades. Electronic Culture: History, Theory and Practice. Cambridge, MIT Press.
For the past two decades the Austrian-based Ars Electronica, Festival for Art, Technology, and Society has played a pivotal role in the development of electronic media. Linking artistic practice and critical theory, the annual festival and symposium bring together scientists, philosophers, sociologists, and artists in an ongoing discourse on the effects of digital media on creativity--and on culture itself. Since Ars Electronica's inception, the evolution of the artistic, historical, and theoretical works presented has been documented in a series of publications that remain crucial to any understanding of media art. Drawing on the abundant and inventive resources of those publications and on Ars Electronica's archives, this anthology collects the essential works that form the core of a contemporary art long dismissed as too technical or inaccessible. The book includes a critical introduction, full bibliography, and texts and artworks from the key figures in the field. Among the many contributors are Robert Adrian, Roy Ascott, Jean Baudrillard, Heidi Grundmann, Donna Haraway, Kathy Huffman, Friedrich Kittler, Knowbotic Research, Myron Kruger, Laurent Migonneau, Sadie Plant, Florian Rötzer, Paul Sermon, Carl Sims, Christa Sommerer, Woody Vasulka, Paul Virilio, Peter Weibel, and Gene Youngblood. This is the inaugural book in the new series Electronic Culture: History, Theory, and Practice.

Usselmann, R. (2003). "The Dilemma of Media Art: Cybernetic Serendipity at the ICA London." Leonardo 36(5): 389-396.
One year after the 1967 Summer of Love and at a time of considerable political unrest throughout the United States and Europe, Cybernetic Serendipity-The Computer and the Arts opened at the Institute of Contemporary Art in London to much critical and popular acclaim. This paper outlines the conceptual framework of this seminal exhibition and looks at some of the accompanying press reception in order to address a key question: how media art deals with its own historicity and the underlying socioeconomic forces that render it possible. Presented 35 years ago and still paradigmatic for the ever-shifting boundaries between art, technology, commerce and entertainment, Cybemetic Serendipity epitomizes some of the complicated dynamics that delineate the gamut of media art today.

Vesna, V. "Another Day in Paradise and Virtual Concrete: installation and telepresence works." Leonardo 31: 13-19.
The American artist Victoria Vesna describes two of her recent projects. Another Day in Paradise (1993) addresses aspects of the Western tendency in urban planning to design communities as controlled environments, in which artifice replaces nature and surveillance systems are a significant feature. She explains how she traded services with the Preserved Treescapes International Inc. to acquire three artificial trees, and describes how she modified them so that one of the trees bears a surveillance screen, the second an interactive video screen, and the third a touchscreen. In addition to describing the installation and its making, she comments on the dilemmas that artists face when working with large corporations and on the apparent attitude of such corporations towards art. She discusses the second project, the installation Virtual Concrete (1995), which was inspired by the 1994 earthquake in California and consists of six slabs made of concrete which wobbled when walked on and an Internet site with a video link which provided remote visitors with a virtual experience of the installation.

Wardrip-Fruin, N. and N. Montfort, Eds. (2003). The New Media Reader. Cambridge, MIT Press.
This reader collects the texts, videos, and computer programs--many of them now almost impossible to find--that chronicle the history and form the foundation of the still-emerging field of new media. General introductions by Janet Murray and Lev Manovich, along with short introductions to each of the texts, place the works in their historical context and explain their significance. The texts were originally published between World War II--when digital computing, cybernetic feedback, and early notions of hypertext and the Internet first appeared--and the emergence of the World Wide Web--when they entered the mainstream of public life. The texts are by computer scientists, artists, architects, literary writers, interface designers, cultural critics, and individuals working across disciplines. The contributors include (chronologically) Jorge Luis Borges, Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing, Ivan Sutherland, William S. Burroughs, Ted Nelson, Italo Calvino, Marshall McLuhan, Billy Kl?Jean Baudrillard, Nicholas Negroponte, Alan Kay, Bill Viola, Sherry Turkle, Richard Stallman, Brenda Laurel, Langdon Winner, Robert Coover, and Tim Berners-Lee. The CD accompanying the book contains examples of early games, digital art, independent literary efforts, software created at universities, and home-computer commercial software. Also on the CD is digitized video, documenting new media programs and artwork for which no operational version exists. One example is a video record of Douglas Engelbart's first presentation of the mouse, word processor, hyperlink, computer-supported cooperative work, video conferencing, and the dividing up of the screen we now call non-overlapping windows; another is documentation of Lynn Hershman's Lorna, the first interactive video art installation.

Welsh, J. "Mausolea and altar(ed) states." Variant 11: 32-5.
Discusses a recent retrospective of Joseph Beuys's work at the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein - Westfalen, Dusseldorf, and an exhibition of the work of his colleague and collaborator, Nam June Paik, at the Kunsthalle, Dusseldorf, and questions the contexts in which the exhibits were displayed. The author also examines the installation work of Bill Viola and finds it transcends limitations of definition and display. He concludes with a consideration of the relationship between fine art and new technology.

Wickstrom, R. D. a. S., Sonia Landy, Ed. (1976). Sonia Landy Sheridan: A Generative Retrospective. Iowa City, University of Iowa Museum of Art.
Catalogue to an exhibition of drawings and prints by sonia landy sheridan in which the author explains in detail the artist's use of machine technology as 'generative systems', or a means to a lyrical art form.

Wilson, S. (2002). Information Arts. Cambridge, MIT Press.
Wilson presents a valuable summary of genetic art and related work in this 945-page survey of art on the frontier between art and science. Information Art contains sections titled "Artists Working with Microbiology", "Plants and Animals", "Ecological Art", and "Body and Medicine". The book also includes a wealth of material on artificial life.

Wosk, J. (2001). Women and the machine: representations from the spinning wheel to the electronic age. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Examines the relationship between women and machines from the early 19th century to the present day, with particular reference to their portrayal in photographs, prints, paintings, computer works, advertising, and packaging from Europe and the U.S.A. The author discusses the practical help, cultural significance, and psychological implications of women's interaction with machines in times of war and peace, and, in separate chapters, focuses on the use of technology in the design of frameworks and corsetry in 19th century fashion, describes the allegorical depiction of the original woman in the context of electricity, automata, and the digital print, and considers how the inventions of the bicycle, car, and aeroplane changed women's lives. She analyses the portrayal of women's roles during and after the two World Wars, and concludes by commenting on the reconfiguration of the image of woman in the electronic age in art works by Donna Cox, Melanie Crean, Laurie Anderson, Jenny Holzer, Cindy Sherman, and Nancy Burson.

Zurbrugg, N. "Nam June Paik: an interview." Visible Language 29(2): 122-37.
In interview, Korean-born video artist Nam June Paik (b.1932) discusses his work and career as a pioneering video artist since the 1960s, the influence of his work and of video art in general on related media, including commercial television, and the use of video as a medium in contemporary art. Paik outlines his involvement with Fluxus in Germany in the 1960s, its aims and successes and its influence on his early interest in new media which led to his video work. He focuses on the influence of German artist Joseph Beuys (1921-86) and describes works he created in collaboration with him. He explains the importance of collaboration to him and describes some of the projects he has worked on with other artists, including John Cage, Merce Cunningham and Laurie Anderson. He comments on trends in contemporary video art and multimedia technologies, and examines his belief in the potential for humanizing technology through art.

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